How To Build Solar Panels
How Solar Cells Produce Energy From the Sun
Photovoltaic or PV Solar Cell for short can be thought of as a direct current (DC) generator powered by the sun.
When light photons of sufficient energy strike a solar cell, they knock electrons free in the silicon crystal structure forcing them through an external circuit (battery, inverter or direct DC load), and then returning them to the other side of the solar cell to start the process all over again.
The voltage output from a single crystalline solar cell is about 0.5V with an amperage output that is directly proportional to the cell’s surface area (approximately 7A for a 6 inch square multi-crystalline solar Cell).
Typically 30-36 cells are wired in series (+ to -) in each solar module...This produces a solar module with a 12V nominal output (~18V at peak power) that can then be wired in series and/or parallel with other solar modules to form a complete solar array.
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